Minggu, 10 November 2013

Language Diversity and International Communication by Reiner Salverda

Today, English is the world language of globalization and modernization. According to Salverda's journal of Language Diversity and International Communication, English today is the language of world politics, International trade and finance, of the Internet, global communications, infotainment and media, of the world's tourist, sports and leisure industry, and even world's science journals. Although English also has a lot of benefits for the user, it is not enough because of some reasons.

Minggu, 03 November 2013

combining journal of Native Speaker Norms and International English: a classroom view and Strategies for Coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan by David Shinji Kondo and Yang Ying-Ling



In this synthesis journal, I will combine journal of Native Speaker Norms and International English: a classroom view and Strategies for Coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan by David Shinji Kondo and Yang Ying-Ling. In International English world, the standard demands people to speak fluently like a native speaker. In fact, the diversity of dialect in every region in the world makes their English spoken does not fulfill that standard. In this case, there is no problem since everybody can understand their language and accent is a characteristic of each region but for the standard of English, the accent like that can be an anxiety which influence the language spoken.
Positive thinking is one of the strategies which is presented by Kondo can be used to increase the confidence in using the accent when people speak English. In Kondo’s study, Positive thinking is on the third arrangement and this is the main strategy of all occasion especially to contra with some statements in journal of native speaker norm and International English: a classroom view because when someone be positive thinking everything will be good.
Just like David Shinji Kondo and Yang Ying-Ling who very confident in convincing the reader about their idea using some statistic data, people can do. I will relate it with the habit of people using their accent when they speak English. People actually can convince others by their confidence in speaking. Like I said before that accent is okay since everybody knows what you are talking about. I have an idea that people actually can be proud to use their accent because that can be a clue to see where they come from.
People also can convince that they good at speaking English and that believe will support them when they speak with foreigner. We can contra with the standard of English which is mentioned by Ivor Timmis in his study because there is no the measurement of native speaker. In his study, there are some standard in speaking English correctly but who knows about the real native speaker. Maybe we can say that native speaker is the one who speak English fluently but indeed people who use their accent also can speak fluently.
Ivor Timmis also mentions that accent is the distraction of International English. Well, it is true that we should follow the standard of English but people cannot be blamed because they use their dialect when speak English. It is unconsciously happen and occurs in the conversation because the speaker used to speak in his or her region. If we talk about accent, then everybody in the world talk with their accent. Which one is native or not, we do not care as long as their language can be understood.
The explanation above is enough to say that confidence in conversation is very important. Positive thinking in speaking English also has a good influence on the hearer. It is possible if people can remember you because your accent. This can be different if you speak grammatically incorrect. People may judge you if you are a native speaker. From that idea, people actually can be considered as native speaker although they use their accent and it does not make them speak grammatically incorrect.
In a conclusion, positive thinking in speaking English can be influence the way we speak. People can understand us no matter how we speak but we have to remember that we should learn English grammar to speak grammatically correct because native or non-native, you speak grammatically correct with your accent.

you can read the article more on:
 
 http://www.mediafire.com/view/tw8b8cozdvm8z0j/ELT_56_3_240-249_native_speaker_norms_n_international_Englis.pdf 
http://www.mediafire.com/view/1dvuec6eze1hc3m/ELT_58_3_258-265_strategies_for_coping_with_language_anxiety.pdf

Rabu, 16 Oktober 2013

Native Speaker Norms and International English: a classroom view

For second response journal, I read native speaker norms and International English: a classroom view. The journal is actually about the teachers and students perspective about the use of native or non-native speaker. There are many contradictory appear since there are different speaker who live in different region and speak with their accent. The journal is very interesting I think because the author makes the explanation very clear by using a questionnaire and statistic data can be seen which style spoken mostly used. In this journal, the writer tries to persuade the reader to pro his idea about native-speaker as he mention in the content of his writing.
The first statement is that “if you can speak English very well, other people cannot hear your accent”. The statement clearly explains that the requirement of International English is native-speaker. In this case, native speaker is a good level of English even in the International Company because the people will not use their accent in that company but natural English as a native one.
The next statement is that ‘‘more grammar spoken is the informal grammar native speaker”. The most students choose that idea because informal grammar is actually more understandable than the formal one. But, teachers contrast with the statement because the ideal speakers are they who would capable of adjusting their speech to the level of English their interlocutor is using not using informal grammar if people cannot understand it. The teacher perspective is different from the student’s then. The differences maybe lay on the subject who receives English. On student’s view, their focus is on their selves because they think that if they hear people use their natives, the students have difficulties to understand what they are talking about since they used to use informal grammar. In contrast to it, teachers focus on global which means that when the students use informal grammar in foreign country, people will not understand them so that is why the teachers also said that “it is important for my students if they are understood in many places in the world because informal grammar is often to local”.
The next statement is that “if you live in a country where the target language is used, an accent is a distraction”. This statement may be considered like we will follow the natives form and grammar so that is why our non-native accent will disappear. It is also what teachers think about native-speaker grammar which has to be spoken. This idea may pro with native speaker and it will lead them to the importance of native speaker in International English. This make people think that they should learn good English grammar and native accent as well because in fact the International English prefer to native-speaker.
In conclusion, learning of native speaker accent and good level of English are needed especially for Indonesian people since it has a lot of regions and quarters. Since the writer pro about native speaker, the learning will help and influence Indonesian skills of English to fulfill International requirement.


Rabu, 09 Oktober 2013

Response Journal A



Response Journal A
Considering response journal A, I read a journal of Strategies for Coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan by David Shinji Kondo and Yang Ying-Ling. In here, the researcher talked about language anxiety and the strategies to cope the anxiety from the students in Japan. Actually, the main idea is discussed in this study is about student’s anxiety since the writer mentioned much about anxiety of the students and it seems becoming the consideration to the research question of “what the effective strategies of each students used to cope the anxiety?”. In here, the researcher tried to know whether there were the difference number and the types of anxiety or not to answer the reaserch question. In the beginning, the writer talked about what language anxiety is and so are the effects of the anxiety as he mentioned in the introduction and then he continued pointed out the three approaches which were subsumed into the four basic methods and five strategies to deal with the anxiety. In this response journal, I will focus more on how the researcher convinced the reader by giving supporting research conducted by Kondo, questionnaire result, and statistic data.
Firstly, the researcher said that in general, the remediation of such anxiety focused on cognitive, affective, and behavioral approaches as well as resignation. This analysis was emphasized by giving the study conducted by Kondo because the researcher will use approaches in whole explanation and wants to convince the reader that this idea is very important and will be useful for them. Thus, the researcher considered those aspects as the strategies to cope the student’s anxiety in classroom setting. Then, considering those strategies in the classroom setting, the researcher making up a question of “do the students with high language anxiety differ in the number and the types of anxiety coping strategies from those with low anxiety?”. In this case, he wants to find the correlation between language anxiety and frequencies of the strategy use.
The second evidence comes up with the questionnaire to analyze the different tactics students make in the class so that the researcher will gather the data for which tactic frequently used by the students. I think this section is good to consider because in here, the investigator gives open-ended questionnaire so that the students will give the different answer and the researcher will get a number of data which lead it to the goals. In here, the result for the questionnaire is very useful because it will make the reader believe with the writer’s idea. The result can be divided into different answer which summarized in five strategies that students use are preparation, relaxation, positive thinking, peer seeking, and resignation. The result strategies that used the most to cope the anxiety is preparation which counted 60,4%. This count will make the reader believe of what the writer’s point and actually it can help the reader to use such strategies in coping their anxiety.
The third evidence the researcher use is statistic data. From phase one to three, the writer shows that actually the data founded is relevant with his idea as I see on the result of some phases that the mean ELCAS score is consistent with the normative data presented by Kondo. In phase two, the researcher found five strategies that he divided into five categories which consisted of preparation, relaxation, positive thinking, peer seeking and resignation. In here, the result in phase two supports his idea about the approaches such as cognitive, affective, and behavioral because those five categories are included into the approaches point. While in the third phase, the result revealed that none of the correlation between language anxiety and frequency strategies use which means that this finding supported the research question from the researcher.
In conclusion, the finding data from the researcher can be valid or not depending on how they convince the reader through the instrument data they used and even some studies which had already exist. Some studies will be trusted depend on the reliability of the result so that such studies will be useful for the reader who wants to get some information from it.

you can read the original article more on:

Kamis, 03 Oktober 2013

Ten Characteristics of a Good Teacher

BY PATRICIA MILLER
This article was first published in Volume 25, No. 1 (1987).
From time to time during the 15 years I have been work­ing in the field of English language teaching and training, I have put myself in the position of language learner rather than teacher. In addition to enjoying language study and finding the process fascinating, I find it beneficial to view the process through the eyes of a student. Even though I have felt at odds with some teachers and their methods, I have learned something from every teacher I have ever had, even the worst of them.
The ten characteristics
There is a line in Saint-Exupery’s The Little Prince that applies to any endeavor, but especially teaching. It reads: “That which is essential cannot be seen with the eye. Only with the heart can one know it rightly.” The essence of teaching is difficult to qualify, but that line leads directly into my most essential criterion.
1. I want a teacher who has a contagious enthusiasm for his teaching—one who, as Richard Via says, loves his stu­dents and his work. Mr. Via is an educational specialist in using drama techniques to teach EFL at the East- West Center in Hawaii. I was fortunate enough to at­tend his teacher-training seminar in Korea in 1976. It was a pleasure to be in his audience. His enjoyment in transmitting knowledge and participating in the seminar was apparent and infectious. His passion for teaching instilled a passion for learning in all the par­ticipants. For me, the most crucial factors in effective teaching are who the teacher is and how he acts in the classroom. This influences the way the students react toward the target language and, therefore, their success in learning it.
2. I want a teacher who is creative. Teaching must be more than simply opening a book, doing exercises, and fol­lowing an outline written by someone else. In the tedium of repetition, the student can go through the motions of doing the exercises without his mind being engaged. What can a teacher do to engage the student’s mind? There are a myriad of techniques that the cre­ative teacher can employ—information-gap exercises, games, songs, jazz chants, problem solving, and other techniques that allow the student to utilize the skills he has already developed in his first language.
3. I want a teacher who can add pace and humor to the class. The humor of one of my teachers had the effect of al­leviating my nervousness—of reducing my affective filter. There was a rapport among the students and the teacher because we were all laughing together. We had a good time learning, and we made a lot of progress be­cause we were not afraid to make mistakes; we could take chances. As Krashen would say, the affective filters of the students were low, facilitating acquisition.
Another teacher that I had maintained an excel­lent pace in the class. She never lost an instant con­sulting a list or thinking about what to do next; she had prepared—that was evident—and she was going to capitalize on every second. I was somewhat nervous in her class, but I didn’t have time to worry about it because events moved so quickly. I was literally sitting on the edge of my seat so that I wouldn’t miss anything, and my adrenalin was a positive force.
I should add that humor is a double-edged sword: it can backfire, for what is funny to one person may not be funny to another. Humor across cultures can add a layer of difficulty to communication.
4. I want a teacher who challenges me. I had several teach­ers who always spoke to me in Spanish, both in and out of class. I felt they were showing confidence in me and challenging me to speak Spanish. The student’s passive knowledge of the target language is always greater than his active knowledge. There is no reason why a teacher should use any language other than the target language except possibly for purposes of expediency. When a teacher reverts to the native language, he is showing a lack of patience with the students’ struggles in the target language. In addition, switching codes is confusing. I was given a test in which all the instructions were read to me in English, so that I would be sure to understand everything. Then I had to answer in Spanish. But the test had three parts and I had to continue switching codes back and forth from English to Spanish; I found this very confusing. It is like going off a diet—once you cheat a little, then you want to cheat a little more. If someone speaks to me in English, this activates my English chan­nel and I am prepared to think in English. Speaking in the target language to the learner prepares and challeng­es him to speak in that language.
In addition, I want a teacher who can maintain a level of difficulty high enough to challenge me, but not so high as to discourage me.
5. I want a teacher who is encouraging and patient, and who will not give up on me. Some of the teachers that I have had demonstrated incredible patience with all of their students, never allowing even a shadow of displeasure to cross their faces in reaction to continued incor­rect speaking after endless correction (which may say something about the policy of correction). When the teacher is positive—encouraging initial and repeated attempts—the students will apply themselves more diligently. Motivation thrives on success.
One teacher I had appeared on several occasions to give up on me. She would struggle to have the other members of the class repeat the combination of an in­direct object pronoun followed by a direct object pro­noun—the nemesis of the Spanish-language student. They would have numerous chances to supply the correct combination in various tenses, but I often was given only one opportunity. For the life of me, I do not know why the teacher gave me only one chance. Was it because I was struggling and she wanted to spare me any unpleasantness? Or was it because in her mind I didn’t need the practice? I felt that I needed the prac­tice and wanted at least a chance to try. I felt that the teacher was discouraged and had lost confidence in my ability to progress. As a result, I lost my incentive and became unsure of myself.
6. I want a teacher who will take an interest in me as a per­son—one who will try to discover discussion topics that interest me. When I was teaching, one of the first things I did was to try to find out what my students’ interests were: hobbies, past employment, family, travel, etc. The easiest, most accessible area of conversation is oneself. The initial and intermediate stages of devel­opment for the language student do not abound with opportunities for coherent self-expression. Most of the time, we language students feel fairly incompetent be­cause we cannot express ourselves adequately, as we are accustomed to doing in our native language. Thus, if we can discuss some little accomplishment we’ve had, or something that we take pleasure in or are proud of, so much the better.
7. I want a teacher who knows grammar well and who can explain something on the spot1 if necessary. I also want a teacher who is realistic and has the simple courage to admit that he doesn’t know an answer if indeed he doesn’t. I have had some teachers who, probably as the result of the de-emphasis on grammar explanation in the structuralist tradition, did not provide enough explanations. It seems to me that a more eclectic ap­proach would take into consideration the needs of the adult learner, who should be given some insight into the intricacies of grammar.
8. I want a teacher who will take a minute or two to answer a question after class, or who will take five minutes to correct something that I have done on my own. I had several teachers who did this willingly and who encouraged the students to do extra work on their own. I also had a teacher who made some corrections for me at my request, but somehow I felt as if I had encroached on her time. Is teaching to be exactly 50 minutes of the hour and no more? First, we as teach­ers need to encourage students not only to study what is required, but to pursue on their own areas in which they are interested. Acquisition is facilitated when it concerns information that we need or are interested in. And second, we need to appreciate our students’ efforts.
9. I want a teacher who will treat me as a person, on an equal basis with all the members of the class, regardless of sex, marital status, race, or my future need for the language. In some of my classes women were given discussion topics relating only to the home and family, and men were rarely asked to talk about their families. Men were also given more “talk” time than the women. This can be discouraging to the student, and that is not conducive to progress. As teachers, we must look carefully at our classes to be certain that we are in­cluding everyone equally. I know that I have prob­ably been guilty of bias toward the brighter and more energetic students—they’re more challenging for the teacher and more interesting for the class. But now
1. Editors Note: on the spot = without further consideration; at once; immediately


that I have been a victim of bias myself, I will cer­tainly be more aware of treating my students equally.
10. Finally, I want a teacher who will leave his emotional baggage outside the classroom. The classroom is a stage, and to be effective the teacher must in some cases be an actor. I do not want to interrupt my concentration by worrying about what might be bothering the teacher. Nor do I want a teacher who sustains himself through ridicule or sarcasm, playing havoc with the emotions of his students and thereby blocking any learning/acqui­sition that might take place.
Conclusion
The qualities that I have discussed can be sepa­rated into four areas—(1) affective characteristics, (2) skills, (3) classroom management techniques, and (4) academic knowledge:
Affective characteristics
enthusiasm
encouragement
humor
interest in the student
availability
mental health

Skills
creativity
challenge

Classroom Management
pace
fairness

Academic Knowledge
grammar

A teacher’s effectiveness depends on his demonstration of the affective characteristics. These are inborn in some of us, but they are also within the grasp of most teachers. Most of us want to be encouraging, enthusiastic, and available, but we just have to be reminded once in a while. The classroom management techniques of peace and fairness are often over­looked, but they can be crucial to effective teaching. These are not techniques that require training, but again, simply awareness. The specific teaching skills of creativity and chal­lenge are associated more with the types of materials and ac­tivities, and their level and appropriateness. Ease and facility in these two areas come with experience and familiarity with the syllabus and materials. Lastly, a teacher who knows his grammar gives himself credibility and stature in the eyes of his students. With a little training in how to explain gram­mar and how to teach it, teachers have an indispensable tool.


Name: Theodora Dyah Phitaloka
Student Number: 112010076

The critical reading of  ten characteristics of good teacher:

I read a journal about the characteristic of good teacher. The article is first published in 1987 and the writer is Patricia Miller. She is a Republican member of the Indiana Senate, representing the 32nd District since 1983. She is the Chairman of Senate Committee on Health and Provider Services. Miller was a member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1982 to 1983. She currently serves as the executive director for the Confessing Movement within the United Methodist Church.In the article, the writer mentions of ten characteristics of good teacher according to the experience she has.
What I get after read the article is that she tries to share her opinion that ten good qualities of teacher are important to aware rather than to train teachers in teaching. In the article she makes, she compares the action teaching from every teacher she meets with her opinion about what should the teachers have and do in teaching. In additional to it, Miller letters the content of her writing to the teachers to aware of what they should or should not do in treating the students. The qualities she mentions are enthusiasm, encouragement, humor, interest in the students, availability, mental health, skills, creativity, challenge, classroom management, pace, fairness, and academic knowledge. She adds that the teacher effectiveness depends on their demonstration of the effective characteristic. So, when the teacher is good on their characteristic that the writer mention, the students will get much contribution in their learning process.
 In contra of this, I disagree with the point of view from the writer because I think that she only thinks in one direction without looking at the general review of the students. It is true that every student has different ability, skill, and mental. Considering this differences, the idea from the writer can not be fit for such students. How if some smart students prefer the teacher who is firm and more serious to act only if the students can understand deeply the explanation from them??? What I mean is that to increasing the student’s ability and knowledge depends on the students itself. I have ever found that there are some students who have good teacher but then they tend to underestimate the qualities of the teacher. In other words, they are odd with the perfectionist teacher. So again, in my opinion, who is a good teacher is a relative for the student and they can choose which character of teacher they like.

Name: Theodora Dyah Phitaloka
Student Number: 112010076
 Summary of ten characteristics of a good teacher:
Patricia Miller who has been working in the field of English language teaching and training for 15 years conducts an observation about a good teacher. She positions herself as language learner or students in some occasions. She also gets some benefit findings in the ten characteristics of a good teacher. In here, she writes ten important criterions which she gets in a line of a book Saint-Exupery’s The Little Prince.
The first criterion she mentions is that teachers must have a contagious enthusiasm. Miller has an opinion that the teacher’s passion in teaching can instill a passion for learning in all students. It is also important to the teacher because the passion will influence the students toward the target language in their learning process. She also notes down that effective teaching is about whom the teacher is and how they act in the class. The second quality is that teacher must be creative. In this case, teachers can engage the student’s mind with some techniques using information- gap exercise, games, songs, jazz chants, and problem solving. Those techniques are actually used to allow the students to use their skills they already developed in their first language. The next teacher’s characteristic is they who can add pace and humor. The writer of the article thinks that using humor and pace can reduce the nervousness and worry, make a good time learning, increase the progress, and make the adrenalin becomes a positive force. She also adds the negative side of humor which can add some difficulties in communication because it is funny to one person but may not be funny to others. Then, a teacher who challenges the students becomes the next criteria of a good teacher. In order to change the student’s passive knowledge into active, a teacher has to challenge the students not as high as they capability. For example the student will be given a speaking test which encourages them to speak English. Unconsciously, they will prepare to think about English in their mind. The fifth criterion is that teachers must be encouraging, patient, and will not give up on the students. The teacher should be patient to their students and they will not speak badly to correct the students if they cannot understand the teacher’s explanation so that the students will be more diligent and sure with their ability. The sixth quality is that the teachers should be interested in the students. In this case, the teachers should know the hobbies, past employment, family from the students or in other words, the teacher should analyze the student’s profile so that teachers can understand what the needs of the students. Thus, students will more confident and take a pleasure time in the class. The seventh quality is that teacher should have abilities in grammar, realistic and has simple courage to admit the perception that they cannot answer some questions. Patricia said that teacher will use their ability in grammar to give a clear explanation to the student and it will influence the understanding of the students. The next criterion according to Patricia is that a teacher should take one, two or even five minutes to answer a question after the class and appreciates the student’s effort. The teacher also should give some corrections and encourage them not only to study what is required but also to learn about their own areas in which they are interested. The next criterion is that teachers should treat the students as a human being on an equal. In here, a teacher should be fair to all of the students in every occasion. This can encourage them so that it will be effective to their progress. Lastly, teacher has to leave their emotional affair like outside the classroom because the teacher is an actor in the class. The students should not be interrupted because it will give the impact on their concentration in gaining the lecture and block any learning or acquisition may happen.
In conclusion, the qualities that the writer discusses actually can be separated into 4 aspects which consist of effective characteristics, skills, classroom management, and academic knowledge. The characteristics which the teacher should have are enthusiasm, encouragement, humor, interested in students, knowledge, availability, mental health, skills, creativity, challenges, classroom management, pace, and fairness. 



These are my annotating pictures: